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Civil courts handle a wide variety of cases involving numerous legal issues. Very broadly, civil cases may involve such things as,
Tort claims of Civil law.
A “tort” is a wrongful act (sometimes called a “tortious” act), other than a breach of contract, that results in injury to someone’s person, property, reputation, or the like, for which the injured person is entitled to compensation. Cases involving claims for such things as personal injury, battery, negligence, defamation, medical malpractice, fraud, and many others, are all examples.
Breach of contract claims.
A breach of contract case typically results from a person’s failure to perform some term of a contract, whether the contract is written or oral, without some legitimate legal excuse. Cases involving claims for such things as not completing a job, not paying in full or on time, failing to deliver goods sold or promised, and many others.
An “equitable claim” asks the court to order a party to take some action or stop some action. It may or may not be joined with a claim for monetary damages. Cases where a party is seeking a temporary restraining order or injunction to stop something (perhaps the destruction of property, the improper transfer of land, the solicitation of a business’ customers).
Civil courts handle disputes arising between landlords and tenants. Cases where a landlord is trying to evict a tenant from a rental property or a tenant has moved out and is suing a landlord for the return of a security deposit.